I asked the opinion of Mike Wenger on this topic. Mike is very kindly allowing me to post his thought on the topic. Here is his thoughts on it. Mike knows his stuff and I highly recommend picking up his books!
Hope this helps!
Fighters – mostly were busy working over the airfields, although a portion of Itaya’s fighters from the Akagi crossed over from Hickam and strafed NASPH on the way to Ewa… possibly Kaga’s as well. There might have been some incidental firing at the ships.
Dive Bombers – again, they were busy at the airfields, bombing (strafing on the way down and out). They circled and did additional passes over Hickam and NASPH… there might have been been some firing on the ships while exiting to the rendezouse point, but not a lot.
Torpedo bombers – the rear gunners most likely fired at the ships on the way out of the harbor.
Dive Bombers – this is where I feel most of the strafing on ships might have taken place. Suppression fire on the way down, and the rear gunners firing on the way out.
Fighters – there were likely fighters over Pearl that shot at the ships.
One thing to remember about vets’ memories of such incidents… Anything that fired on them was “a Zero."