Step 1: Open the Chrome Browser settings
Enter the URL:
in the address bar of your Chrome Browser.
Step 2: Change the Color profile
Scroll down the page until the point "Force Color Profile".
In my case, I had to change the value from "Default" to "sRGB". The correct value may vary, so just test out which one looks best on your monitor.
Restart the Chrome Browser to apply the change. The Browser will ask for the restart automatically.
Now the website shows up in the correct colors again.