I. The 25 July Presidential phone call
Early in the morning of 25 July, the President spoke by telephone with Ukrainian President
Volodymyr Zelenskyy. I do not know which side initiated the call. This was the first publicly
acknowledged call between the two leaders since a brief congratulatory call after Mr. Zelenskyy
won the presidency on 21 April.
Multiple White House officials with direct knowledge of the call informed me that, after an
initial exchange of pleasantries, the President used the remainder of the call to advance his
personal interests. Namely, he sought to pressure the Ukrainian leader to take actions to help
the President's 2020 reelection bid.
According to the White House officials who had direct knowledge of the call, the President
pressured Mr. Zelenskyy to, inter alia:
• initiate or continue an investigation into the activities of former Vice President Joseph
Eiden and his son, Hunter Biden;
• assist in purportedly uncovering that allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S.
presidential election originated in Ukraine, with a specific request that the Ukrainian
leader locate and turn over servers used by the Democratic National Committee (DNC)
and examined by the U.S. cyber security firm Crowdstrike, which initially reported that
Russian hackers had penetrated the DNC's networks in 2016; and
• meet or speak with two people the President named explicitly as his personal envoys on
these matters, Mr. Giuliani and Attorney General Barr, to whom the President referred
multiple times in tandem.
There was NO PRESSURE, geez.
Zelenskyy has publically responded numerous times to the question by stating, there was NO PRESSURE and NO quid pro quo. Holy Moly!
And on a side note .. According to USAID, the main causes of corruption in Ukraine are a weak justice system and an over-controlling non-transparent government combined with business-political ties and a weak civil society.
This business-political ties is on a global scale.