?? What are "surface traits" and "surface markers"
The development of the NPA model was presented in some detail in our Book (1985, 2008).
The model is deceptively simple. Complexities quickly arise when one considers 1) the possibility of more than one gene involved in the expression of each trait, 2) modulation of trait A and epistatic interactions between other genes and the NPA loci, 3) other aspects of personality such as temperament, and 4) environmental effects.
« Back to index