Assuming that Joan was about 20 when she married you are looking at her being born possibly before the introduction of formal parish registers.
It might help if you gave information as to where she married and her maiden/birth name. Is there any indication in the marriage record of her status when she married, it's always possible she was a widow on marriage and therefore the surname she used when marrying might not be her birth name. Details in parish registers for 1558 can be very sketchy and it's not really until 1754 that you find more details given in the register for a marriage.
Almost impossible to search back from 1538 unless you have more information on a person and knew where they lived, were born etc.
This guide from the National Archives might help with your research